Much like my previous post on Meeting Etiquette, this is a topic I feel strongly about. I am sure there are good reasons that people will hate some of my suggestions and I'd love to hear them, but here are my views on change requests1 based on my personal experiences.
All work is a change
I loathe projects that differentiate new work from changes to existing work. It creates two different process flows for little gain, creating points for confusion and mistakes. If all work items, whether new features, bug fixes or enhancements to existing features are raised as change requests, the work flow is the same. Everything should be tied back to requirements, regardless of the type of work, so arguments that claim there is a difference just don't wash with me. Consider a new feature as a change from not having it to having it, after all, that's exactly what it is.
Whatever the work is that is being conducted must still be implemented, reviewed and tested against requirements. Why make it harder than it needs to be?
Specify requirements, not solutions
There are many times I've been assigned a requirement that tells me how to fix something, not what needs fixing. Let's face it, everyone has an opinion but change requests are not the place to express them (except perhaps as a suggestion in the comments somewhere). A change request should clearly state the requirements that drive the change (i.e. the things that can be used to identify when the change request has been resolved) and any other information that may help (for example, steps to reproduce a bug or some rationale behind the change required).
If I see one more change request with a summary or title like "Change to menu dropdown" or "Display control update", I will be rather miffed and may hurt someone (I'm British, "miffed" is just above "peeved" on the British Standards Anger Scale2). The title of a change request is very important and should give a clear indication of what the change request actually requires. Think of it a bit like twitter; it's much nicer reading some useful information in a tweet than it is to learn that someone just had a coffee. If the title is not clear, time is wasted in going to look at the description every time someone sees that change request. Every status meeting, every discussion, click click click. Save everyone the effort and get it right first time, and if you spot a title that isn't clear enough, fix it right away.
Finally, when adding comments, additional description, attachments or anything else to a change request, make sure it adds value. Leave an trail for those who follow in your footsteps so that they can discover what changed and why. Document important discussions and decisions. If you don't, you are destined to go around in circles.
Manage releases by managing change
Target changes at releases and review new changes regularly. This way, new requests raised during that release cycle can be considered for inclusion and deferred changes can be ignored until after the release. Each time a new release is started, review all the open requests and determine if they should be rejected, deferred or included in that release. Justify and document rejections in case a duplicate is raised and make sure to link duplicate issues as they can add value to one another.
Have meaningful states
I feel that there are the following possible states for a change request in any sane process to manage them.
- In progress
- Ready for review
- Passed review
- Merged to trunk
These are clear, unambiguous states.
- If something is marked as "Raised", it hasn't been assigned to any release and no work should be happening on it.
- If it's "Assigned", it should be targetted at a release (even if it's only intended for investigation at first – it can always be removed from the release back to "Raised" or rejected and closed).
- If someone is working on something, that something should be marked as "In progress" as this helps to track progress at a glance and can also be useful if resources become available and things need reassigning.
- If something passes testing, close it, unless you really don't trust the test team, in which case have a "Passed test" state and then review the results before closing3.
Considering these basic states, the workflow looks something like this:
You could add additional states if you so desired but I feel that these cover the bases well enough and provide an easy to follow work flow.
Closed means closed
Change request management gets messy when the process allows for closed requests to be re-opened. If a closed request seems like it really is now needed, raise a new request. Don't close change requests just because they aren't being done right away; if it's a real issue, then it should remain open until it is resolved.
Not always, but mostly
The guiding principle for me when it comes to change requests is simplicity. Don't make your process more complicated than it needs to be. Make it easy to follow and hard to get wrong. While I'm yet to encounter a project that required anything different to what I've suggested, I am certain there are exceptions, so if you have any, let me know. This is often a contentious, polarising topic, so I expect someone, somewhere to emphatically insist I am wrong. I can accept that, so I look forward to finding out even better ways to manage change.
I made that up ↩
You may also know them as issues, bugs, defects or some other moniker that ultimately means "a repository of things to do". ↩
Flippant remarks aside, this may be valuable if you need to perform a round of customer acceptance testing after internal testing before closing out change requests. ↩
I made that up ↩